Contributions to the chemistry of natural waters
American Journal of Science
CONTENTS 011 SEOTIONS.-52, salts of alkaline metals, proportion and sources of potash; 63, pota$h in a borax lake, in the primitive sea; 64, salts of lime and magnesia, relations of chlorids and carbonates; 65, solubility of earthy carbonates; 56, super-saturated solutions of carbonates of lime and magnesia; 67, salts of barium and strontium, solution of their sulphates; 6S, iron, manganese, alumina and phosphates; 59, bromids and iodids; the small portion of bromine and the excess of iodine in
... saline springs as compared with the modern ocean; 60, probable relation of iodids to sediments; 61, sulphates, their elimination frOin waters; 62, water holding a soluble sulphurd; 63, borates, their detection and determination; 64, analysis of a borax water from California j 65, carbonates, their amounts in the Caledonia waters; 66, intervention of neutral carbonate of soda; 67, deficiency of carbonic acid ill waters; 68, reactions of various waters; 69, silica, its source and its proportion; 70, its condition; formation of silicates; 71, organic matters; 72, geological position of the waters here described: 73, succession of Paleozoic strata; lithological relations of successive formations; 74, Quebec group, its waters; 75, sources of various classes of waters; 76, their relation to the formations; 77, association of unlike waters, chnnges in constitution; 78, temperature of springs, thermal waters; 79, geological interest of the above analyses I possible results of the evaporation of these springs; 80, relations of mineral springs to folding and to metamorphism of strata; Sl, on the supposed origin of the primeval ocean and the earliest sediments; 82, on the theory of metalliferous deposits. § 52. Salts of the Alkaline Metals.-These salts abound in most saline waters, and except in the few cases in which sulphate of magnesia prevails, form a large part of the soluble matters present. The salts of sodium are by far the most abundant, and the proportion of potassium salt is generally small. The chlorid of potassium in modern sea-water constitutes three or four hundredths of the alkaline chlorids, while in the brines from old rocks, and in saline waters of the first two classes alike from Germany, England, the United States, and Canada, its proportion is much less, sometimes amounting to traces only. In the waters of classes III and IV, where alkaline carbonates appear, and even predominate, the proportion of potassium salt becomes greater. Thus of the waters of the latter class ( § 45), the alkalies of the Nicolet spring calculated as chlorids contain 1'89 per cent of chlorid of potassium, and those of the J acq ues-Cartier 2'95 j while for the St. Ours spring the chlorid of potassium is equal to not less than 25-0 per cent. There does not however appear to be any relation between the proportion of alkaline carbonate and that of potassium, since the salts from the waters first named are more alkaline than those of St. Ours; while those of the alkaline water of Joly contain less than one per cent of potassic chlorid.