Biodiversitas dan kearifan lokal dalam budidaya tanaman pangan mendukung kedaulatan pangan: Kasus di lahan rawa pasang surut
Indonesian

MUHAMMAD NOOR
2015 unpublished
Abstrak. Noor M, Rahman A. 2015. Biodiversitas dan kearifan lokal dalam budidaya tanaman pangan mendukung kedaulatan pangan: Kasus di lahan rawa pasang surut. Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon 1: 1861-1867.Lahan rawa pasang surut termasuk lahan marjinal yang dicirikan oleh tanah dan lingkungan fisik bermasalah antara lain kondisi tata air, fisik-mekanik tanah, kimia-kesuburan tanah, dan virulensi hama dan penyakit tanaman. Pembukaan lahan rawa pasang surut diinisiasi dengan dibangunnya kanal-kanal
more » ... ngunnya kanal-kanal yang menghubungkan antara dua sungai sehingga memudahkan terjadinya arus pertukaran barang dan jasa, termasuk ilmu pengetahuan. Lahan rawa pasang surut yang tersebar di 17 provinsi meliputi luas 20,14 juta hektar, diantaranya sekitar9,53 juta hektar dinyatakan sesuai untuk pertanian. Luas lahan rawa pasang surut yang dimanfaatkan sekarang diperkirakan baru sekitar 5,27 juta hektar, diantaranya 2,27 juta hektar dibuka untuk program transmigrasi oleh pemerintah dan 3,0 juta hektar dibuka oleh masyarakat secara swadaya. Perkembangan lahan rawa pasang surut didukung oleh berbagai hasil eksplorasi, penelitian, dan pengkajian berupa teknologi budidaya dan pengelolaan, khususnya dalam pengembangan padi sebagai komoditas utama. Hasil analisis potensi menunjukkan bahwa dengan optimalisasi melalui input teknologi pengelolaan dan asupan amelioran, pupuk dan pestisida dari sekitar 700 ribu hektar lahan rawa pasang surut,dapat menghasilkan 6,49 juta ton gabah kering giling/tahun. Namun pada kenyataaannya sumbangan lahan rawa pasang surut hanya sekitar 600-700 ribu ton. Oleh karena itu, dalam rangka mencapai kedaulatan pangan, pemanfaatan lahan rawa pasang surut perlu ditingkatkan memalui pemanfaatan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi (IPTEK) inovatif serta komitmen yang kuat dari para stakeholders.Lahan rawa pasang surut mempunyai biodiversitas yang luas dan kearifan lokal yang spesifik.Biodiversitas tanaman pangan di lahan rawa pasang surut meliputi padi, jagung, kacang-kacangan, umbi-umbian, sayuran dan hortikultura, termasuk ternak itik, ayam, dan kerbau rawa. Kearifan lokal meliputi pengelolaan lahan rawa pasang surut yang termasuk cara penilaian dan pemilihan lokasi, pembukaan lahan dan pengelolaan air,perawatan dan perbaikan kesuburan tanah, dan pola tanam. Tulisan ini mengemukakan rangkuman hasil eksplorasi dan penelitian sumber daya genetik tanaman pangan dan kearifan lokal petani dalam budidaya tanaman pangan di lahan rawa pasang surut Kalimantan, Sumatera, dan Sulawesi yang dilaksanakan antara tahun 1999-2009. Kata kunci: Biodiversitas, kearifan lokal, lahan rawa pasang surut Indon 1: 1861-1867 . Tidal Wetlands are included in marginal lands characterized by the lands physical downsides such as water condition, the lands of physic-mechanical condition, chemic-fertility and viral plant diseases. Agriculture in tidal wetlands is developed hand in hand with the growth of the society as the result of information and cultural exchanges. Wetlands in the early 1960ths had not been explored and the technology used in food crops agriculture was still traditional. The clearing of the tidal wetlands was initiated by the constructions of the canals connecting between two rivers which smoothen the exchange of goods and services, including knowledge. The government had targeted the tidal wetlands clearing of 5,25 million acres since 1969 for 15 years, where 2.27 acres of it were cleared by the government for transmigration program and 3,0 million acres were cleared by the local society. The developments of tidal wetlands are supported by the result of explorations, research, and discussions of agriculture and management technology, especially rice as the main commodity. The potential analysis showed that optimization through management technology input and also ameliorant, fertilizer, and pesticide intakes of 700 thousands acres of tidal wetlands can produce 6,49 million tons of dried rice/ year. But the reality showed the contribution of the wetlands were just about 600-700 thousand tons. Therefore, to achieve the Food Sovereignty, the use of tidal wetlands needs to be elevated; this can be done by the strong commitment of all stakeholders. The use of tidal swamps lands with broad biodiversity and specific indigenous knowledge can increase the productivity of the food crops and farmers income. The biodiversity of the food crops includes rice, corn, nuts, umbu roots, vegetables and horticulture and also includes duck, chicken, and wetland buffalo livestock. The indigenous knowledge covers the tidal wetlands management which includes the land evaluation and sites selection, land opened and water management, the efforts of maintaining soil fertility, and crop pattern. This paper to explained and review of the result of exploration and research the resources of food crop's germplasm and indigenous knowledge of farmers on the food crops cultivation in the tidal swamps of Kalimantan, Sumatra, and Sulawesi that conducted between 1999 and 2009. Abstract. Noor M, Rahman A. 2015. Biodiversity and local knowledge in the cultivation of food crops supporting for food security: A case study on tidal swamp land. Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv
doi:10.13057/psnmbi/m010819 fatcat:s5zm6innajaqvmkw66fx33moiu