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Phase-shifting masks (PSMs) have provided us a breakthrough in the future semiconductor industry by extending lithography further to the submicrometer order. PSMs have been used over the past several years, and their requirements have changed due to the development of semiconductor technology. We investigated high-transmittance attenuated PSMs (HT-Att-PSMs) that satisfy the requirements of 20 ± 5% transmittance and 180 • phase shift at the exposure wavelength and less than 40% transmittance atdoi:10.1143/jjap.39.6321 fatcat:k4cacuruc5fcxdmehpg2zykmdq