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The catalyzation of TaN/SiO 2 /Si substrates was carried out by immersion in SnCl 2 /HCl and PdCl 2 /HCl solutions for electroless Cu deposition. The sizes and morphologies of the catalytic sites on the TaN layers were found to be a function of catalyzation conditions, including solution temperature, immersion time, and the surface oxides. The appropriate formula for catalyzation was obtained by considering both the quality and efficiency. The catalytic sites were composed of Sn and Pd, and thedoi:10.1149/1.1436084 fatcat:xmv45xwhqfdbpci47ab23yygyu