Herschel/HIFI observations of [C II] and [13C II] in photon-dominated regions
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Recently, we introduced detailed isotopic chemistry into the KOSMA-tau model for photon-dominated regions (PDRs) to give theoretical predictions for the abundance of the carbon isotopologues as a function of PDR parameters. Combined with radiative transfer computations for specific geometries, we estimated the possible intensity ratio of the [CII]/[13CII] lines. Here, we compare these predictions with new observations. We performed Herschel/HIFI observations of the [CII] 158micron line in a
... icron line in a number of PDRs. In all sources we observed at least two hyperfine components of the [13CII] transition allowing to determine the [CII]/[13CII] intensity ratio, after some revision of the intrinsic hyperfine ratios. Comparing the intensity ratios with the results from the updated KOSMA-tau model, we identify cases dominated by chemical fractionation and cases dominated by the optical depth of the main isotopic line. An observable enhancement of the [CII]/[13CII] intensity ratio due to chemical fractionation depends mostly on geometry and velocity structure, and less on the gas density and radiation field. In our observations the [CII]/[13CII] ratio for the integrated line intensity was always dominated by the optical depth of the main isotopic line. However, an enhanced intensity ratio is found for particular velocity components in a few sources: the red-shifted material in the ultracompact HII region Mon R2, the wings of the turbulent profile in the Orion Bar, and possibly a blue wing in NGC7023. The mapping of the [13CII] lines in the Orion Bar allows to derive a C+ column density map confirming the temperature stratification of the C+ layer, in agreement with the chemical stratification of the Bar. The C+ column densities for all sources show that at the position of the [CII] peak emission, a dominant fraction of the gas-phase carbon is in the form of C+.