Lactoferrin Can Attenuate SARS-CoV-2: An Analysis of Evidential Relations

Furqan Shafqat, Shafeeq Ur Rehman, Kamal Niaz
2022 Biomedical Research and Therapy  
Lactoferrin (Lf ) has been shown to have antiviral action against a variety of animal and human viruses, particularly deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses. This review aims to summarize the pharmacological activities that lead to the influential role of Lf against SARS-CoV-2. Methods: An all-inclusive search of published articles was carried out to focus on publications related to Lf and its biological/pharmacological activities using various literature databases,
more » ... ding the scientific databases Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar, Google, EMBASE, and Scientific Information (SID). Results: By acting on cell targets, Lf prevents viral attachment, surface accumulation on the host cell, and virus penetration. Lf has shown high antiviral effectiveness across a broad spectrum of viruses, suggesting that it might be used to cure and prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Lf can also attach to viral particles directly, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV), and steer them away from certain sites. LF has a powerful attraction for iron, with a constant of approximately 10 20 . Lf capacity to link iron relies on the existence of (minute amounts of ) bicarbonate. The bacteriostatic effect of Lf is due to its capability to come together with free iron, which is one of the ingredients necessary for bacterial development. Lf located in neutrophil secondary granules is essential for host defense. Conclusion: Researchers confirmed that Lf activates natural killer (NK) cells in a study. Lf has been shown in certain studies to prevent patronization in pseudovirus severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) cases that leads to attenuation of SARS-CoV-2. Lf may decrease inflammation induced by microbial exposure and directly reduce bacterial growth. It is concluded that Lf possesses antibacterial, immunomodulatory, anticancer, antiviral, cytoprotective, and anti-inflammatory activities, which ultimately act as an antiviral against SARS-CoV-2 via various mechanisms.
doi:10.15419/bmrat.v9i2.727 fatcat:hl4ajgaesndnncoyv5po5uocea