Integrating Wearable Sensor Technology into Project-management Process

Koji Ara, Tomoaki Akitomi, Nobuo Sato, Kunio Takahashi, Hideyuki Maeda, Kazuo Yano, Masao Yanagisawa
2012 Journal of Information Processing  
A sensor-based project management process, which uses continuous sensing data of face-to-face communication, was developed for integration into current project management processes. To establish a practical process, a sensing system was applied in two software-development projects involving 123 and 65 employees, respectively, to analyze the relation between work performance and behavioral patterns and investigate the use of sensor data. It was found that a factor defined as "communication
more » ... ss," which refers to the amount of communication, correlates with employee performance (job evaluation) and was common in both projects, while other factors, such as "workload," were found in just one of the projects. Developers' quality of development (low bug occurrence) was also investigated in one of the projects and "communication richness" was found as a factor of high development quality. As a result of this analysis, we propose a four-step sensor-based project management process, which consists of analysis, monitoring, inspection, and action, and evaluated its effectiveness. Through monitoring, it was estimated that some "unplanned" events, such as changing specifications and problem solving during a project, could be systematically identified. Cohesion of a network was systematically increased using a recommendation of communication, called WorkX, which involves micro rotating of discussion members based on network topology. Analysis 2: Relation between Development Quality and Behavior As illustrated in Fig. 7 , two factors were found to affect the relation between development quality and behavior. The first factor is related to communication, i.e., total amount of communication, communication ratio, number of employees communicated with, and network cohesion. "Communication richness" is a factor of development quality, as stated in Hypothesis 2. The second factor is related to personality features, i.e., agreeableness and GFP. Since the GFP, as described above, anticipates the adaptability of a person, this second factor represents an employee's "flexibility." According to these two factors, it can be concluded that rich communication and flexibility are key levers of high-quality development under uncertain conditions. Senior manager assumed that behaviors indicating solo work, such as time spent in the office or time spent in activities other than communication, could be related to high quality, but it is intriguing that no such factors were found. Analysis 3: Relation between Sub-leader Behavior and Individual's Performance To evaluate Hypotheses 3 to 5, we calculated the amount of communication with another sub-leader, communication with a leader, and amount of solo work without communication. Through correlation with employee evaluation, the amount of communication with another sub-leader was found to be a factor of high performance, as stated in Hypothesis 3 (r = 0.79, p < 0.01); however, the other two hypotheses (4 and 5) were not confirmed for the current set of behavioral features (p > 0.1). Since a sub-leader often works outside the office, the simple amount of communication might not be the key index of performance; rather, quality of communication, such as bi-directional, constant, and frequent communication, needs to be investigated.
doi:10.2197/ipsjjip.20.406 fatcat:j76ri2d5gfbefjz5btkjknjusa