A Review on the Effective Factors in Differentiation of Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Germ Cells and Infertility Treatment
Currently, fertility and survival of future generations is emphasized in societies. Hence, male infertility is a major concern for community health worldwide. In Europe, 14% of young couples have infertility problems. Iranian couples have an infertility rate above World average, at approximately 20.2%. Hormonal factors, genetics, and psychological problems cause 40%-50% of infertility in men. Since there are increasing numbers of cancer patients in industrialized societies and anti-cancer
... d anti-cancer treatments highly eliminate germ cells, hence, cancer treatments reduce male fertility. Recognition of primordial germ cells, to understand their migration process and understanding effective factors in their differentiation can open new avenues for primary studies that follow production of germ cells from other cell sources such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Therefore, finding a way to distinguish germ cells from MSCs, as well as their preservation and proliferation in a culture system can provide the base for spermatogenesis in an in vitro culture. Isolation and differentiation of germ cells from different cell sources such as umbilical cord using morphogens (bone morphogenetic protein and retinoic acid) is an efficient method for infertility research. We investigate some of the effective factors in differentiation of umbilical cord MSCs to germ cells.