Hypothesis: Heat Transfer and Elementary Carriers of Heat Energy
Current Research in Bioorganic & Organic Chemistry
Energy is one of the basic concepts of natural science and is inextricably linked with the idea of the transformation of one form of motion of matter into another. In turn, technological advances encourage science to make new discoveries that make it possible to use all types of energy efficiently: master the energy of the subsoil, the sun's rays, tides, sea waves, control thermonuclear energy, etc. All this requires fundamental knowledge of the mechanism of energy transfer. Currently, it is
... Currently, it is argued that the "phlogiston theory" is over, but in a hidden form it is widely used in practice to explain the heat transfer as Fourier's equation: where Ф is the heat flux; λ is the coefficient of thermal conductivity; ∂T/∂x is the temperature gradient; S is the cross section of the conductor through which the heat flux flows. Here «heat flow» is accepted as a form of motion. It is well known that there are three types of heat transfer, which are carried out by thermal conductivity or conduction; convection or heat transfer by moving particles of matter and radiation. However, the true nature and nature of the manifestation of heat requires a more careful approach to the mechanism and essence of the heat transfer process. The present work is devoted to elucidation of the nature of heat carriers on the basis of dialectical, thermodynamic, molecularkinetic and quantum -electrodynamic methods of cognition. To do this, first consider the heat of formation mole of water ΔН f 0 (Н 2 О liq. ), which is equal to the heat of combustion ΔН с 0 (H 2 ) for mole of hydrogen: According to the reference data during the combustion of hydrogen in oxygen the temperature reaches 3173К and 285.8 kJ/ mol of heat equal to the heat of formation of water is released. Formed water vapor is cooled from 3173К down to 298K. Specific heat capacity of water C P (Н 2 О liq ) = 4.218 kJ/kg, and of steam C P (Н 2 О g ) = 2.02 kJ/kg; ΔН tr 0 (Н 2 O) = 2260,0 kJ/kg. Believe that the processes occur at standard conditions: T= 298K and P =1,05•10 5 Pa. This process is carried out back, equilibrium and heat balance for heating water from 298K to 3173K is as follows: The heat expended on the work of water expansion PΔV is calculated by the of Mendeleev-Clapeyron's equation nR (T 2 -T 1 ) in the temperature range from 373K to 3173K. In this case, for one mole of water the value of heat is described by this equation: Q = C P (Н 2 О liq ) (373-298) + 2260+ C P (Н 2 О g (3173-373) +R (3173-373) Here, the sum of C P (Н 2 О liq ) (373-298) + 2260 + C P (Н 2 О g (3173-373) represents the change in internal energy (ΔU): ΔU=4,21•18• (373-298) + 2260,0•18 + 2.02•18• (3173-373) =148,16•10 3 J. Work of the expansion of steam (РΔV) from 373K to 3173K requires energy: PΔV= nR (T 2 -T 1 ) = 8,314•1• (3173-373) = 23,28•10 3 J. For the process it took 148,16•10 3 + 23,28•10 3 = 171,4•10 3 J of heat. Under the given conditions, the formation of water mole produces 285.8•10 3 J of heat. The system is closed, the amount of water is constant and eliminates the transfer of heat by water molecules. Consequently, the number of scattered heat -TΔS -is (285,8 -171,4) • 10 3 =114,4•10 3 J. .