Hematological and demographic profile of Pakistani children with isolated ventricular septal defects (VSDs)
Sumbal Sarwar, Shabana, Farah Ehsan, Amna Tahir, Mahrukh Jamil, Saleem Ullah Shahid, Shahida Hasnain, Asim Khan, Syed Najam Hyder
Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics
Background Cardiac morphogenesis is a dynamic and complex process that involves a complex interaction of many genetic and environmental factors. Ventricular septal defects (VSDs) are the commonest congenital heart defects (CHDs), accounting for ~ 40% of all cardiac malformations. In Pakistan, the prevalence of VSD is increasing (4–6 in 1000 live births). In the current study, we aimed to determine the pattern of different hematological parameters and various risk factors in VSDs in local
... ic patients. We recruited the clinically diagnosed VSD children (n = 125) from various hospitals. The diagnosis was made based on echocardiography, size, number, and exact location of the defect. Hematological parameters, chemical pathological assays, and liver function analysis were performed. The blood group distribution and various risk factors were also assessed. The statistical analysis was done using the SPSS (IBM statistics version 22) software. Results The results showed that for RBCs, 20% of patients in category of 0 to 3 months are above normal range; for WBCs, 33.3% of patients are above normal range in category of 4–5 years and 12–14 years. For hemoglobin, highest percentage of patients was observed below normal range; 30% of patients in category of 0 to 3 months, 40% of patients in category 4–9 months, 35.2% of patients in category of 10 months–3 years, and 33.3% of patients in category of 12–14 years were below normal range. For platelet count, 5.66% patients were below normal range and 16.9% were above normal range. For prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) more than 90% patients were in normal range value. Elevated ALP level and significantly lower albumin levels were observed. In age range of 13–14 years, 50% patients were below range for both calcium and serum creatinine. The prevalence of cousin marriages was 62.3%, about 60% mothers used antibiotics during pregnancy, B + ve and O + ve had the highest frequencies, and most of the patients were seen in age group of 2–35 months. Conclusion All tested parameters show divergence from normal values their predictive capabilities of VSDs. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to report data on hematological parameters and demographic risk factor associated with VSDs, in the Pakistani children. This data may have implication on the characterization and diagnosis of VSDs as well as on the assessment of related risk factors.