Anxiety Disorder Is Associated With Nocturnal and Early Morning Hypertension With or Without Morning Surge

Hiroyuki Kayano, Shinji Koba, Taiju Matsui, Hiroto Fukuoka, Tsutomu Toshida, Tetsuo Sakai, Yasushi Akutsu, Kaoru Tanno, Eiichi Geshi, Youichi Kobayashi
2012 Circulation Journal  
Nocturnal and early morning hypertension are both significant risk factors for cardiovascular events. It remains unclear whether anxiety disorder affects nocturnal blood pressure (BP), early morning BP, or BP pattern in hypertensive patients. Methods and Results: One hundred and twenty consecutive hypertensive outpatients (77 men and 43 women; mean age, 66±11 years) were divided into 2 groups based on Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) score: a control group (n=78; HADS ≤10) and an
more » ... iety group (42 patients; HADS ≥11). Nocturnal BP, early morning BP, morning BP surge (defined as BP rise ≥50 mmHg), and BP pattern (extreme-dipper/dipper/non-dipper/riser) were measured on ambulatory BP monitoring. Clinical characteristics and BP were also evaluated at physician check-up. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups for BP check-up, but nocturnal and early morning BP were significantly higher in the anxiety group (142±16 mmHg and 152±21 mmHg) than in the control group (126±14 mmHg and 141±18 mmHg). With regard to patients with morning BP surge, nocturnal and early morning BP were also significantly higher in the anxiety group. The relative risk of existing anxiety disorders in riser-type hypertension was 4.48-fold higher (95% confidence interval: 1.58-12.74; P<0.005) than in dipper-type hypertension. Conclusions: Anxiety disorder is associated with nocturnal and early morning hypertension, and may be a risk factor for cardiovascular events. (Circ J 2012; 76: 1670 - 1677
doi:10.1253/circj.cj-11-1085 pmid:22481104 fatcat:dgwpmgec3vanlm6r6tdcf6gsqe