Moraxella nonliquefaciens bloodstream infection and sepsis in a pediatric cancer patient: case report and literature review

Carlos L. Correa-Martínez, Kerstin K. Rauwolf, Franziska Schuler, Miriam Füller, Stefanie Kampmeier, Andreas H. Groll
2019 BMC Infectious Diseases  
Moraxella nonliquefaciens is a usually non-pathogenic biofilm-producing Gram-negative coccobacillus which may colonize the upper respiratory tract, rarely causing invasive disease. Although very rare, bloodstream infections caused by this organism have been described, showing often a fatal outcome. Here, we report the case of a pediatric cancer patient with bloodstream infection and sepsis due to M. nonliquefaciens showing full recovery after appropriate antibiotic treatment. Case presentation:
more » ... Case presentation: A three-year-old boy with stage IV neuroblastoma was admitted for high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue after standard neuroblastoma treatment. Despite receiving antimicrobial prophylaxis with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, acyclovir and amphothericin B, the patient presented with fever of up to 39.5°C and neutropenia. Besides a chemotherapy-related mucositis and an indwelling Broviac catheter (removed), no infection focus was identified on physical examination. Moraxella nonliquafaciens was identified in blood cultures. After antibiotic treatment and neutrophil recovery, the patient was fit for discharge. Conclusions: The case described highlights the importance of an otherwise non-pathogenic microorganism, especially in immunosupressed cancer patients. It should be kept in mind that, although very infrequently, Moraxella nonliquefaciens may cause bloodstream infections that can be successfully treated with prompt focus identification and antibiotic therapy.
doi:10.1186/s12879-019-4489-y fatcat:uzdk6ide5fd57n4hj5227lmcse