Effect evaluation of vitamin D level amongst patients with chronic hepatitis B
Archives of Pathology and Clinical Research
Vitamin D has immunomodulatory and anti ibrotic properties, and therefore used for treatment of many of chronic liver disease  . Although there are many reports on the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels and chronic liver diseases, but the relationship between hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg) and vitamin D level is still unclear. The modi ication and prevention of vitamin D de iciency needs an accurate illustration of the current position in each region. Vitamin D level
... in patients with HBV is relatively an important issue, which has been studied in many researches. As different papers published in national and international journals. Luong and Nguyen , was the irst researcher who was suggested the effective function of vitamin D in patients with HBV, in the next year, Demir, et al.  , measured the levels of vitamin D in three groups as chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients, naturally immunized persons and control subjects in their study, which concluded that CHB patients had lower vitamin D levels compared to two other groups  . In the another study, that was analyzed the association between vitamin D level and HBV in CHB patients concluded that only 19% of them had suf icient and the rest of these patients( 81%) had vitamin D insuf iciency or severe vitamin D de iciency. It was shown that lower serum vitamin D3 levels in CHB patients in luence to mortality risk in hepatitis virus  . In another attempt, that was conducted by Schiller , de iciency of vitamin D in patients with CHB was con irmed  . Also, in one other study, the levels of vitamin D were analyzed for 128 CHB patients, including positive and negative hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg)  . Accordingly, they concluded that serum vitamin D3 levels in patients with CHB were signi icantly lower than control group. Thus, in patients with positive HBeAg, this de iciency was more intensive than negative HBeAg. In general, lower levels of vitamin D in patients with HBeAg have been investigated indifferent studies  . Moreover, younger aged was associated relatively with low levels of vitamin D, and also normal alanine transaminase (ALT) was associated with high levels of vitamin D. Generally, most of studies have suggested lower serum 25-OH vitamin D3 levels among chronically infected patients with closely and negatively association. Furthermore, lower vitamin D levels in negative HBeAg compared with positive HBeAg patients was studies in limited researches. It is understood that levels of vitamin D may have decreased in CHB patients. Almost in all of studies, it can be found that vitamin D levels were analyzed in patients with chronically infected. In the other hand, in the most of published studies conducted in Iran's population, the prevalence rate of vitamin D de iciency varied from 2.5% to 98% in different regions based on geographical regions, generally, according to present national reports; the vitamin D content is low in the Iranian diet [8, 9] . Despite the potential health bene its of vitamin D supplementation, drug-vitamin D interactions is rarely considered. Atorvastatin appears to increase 25 (OH)D concentrations, whereas concurrent vitamin D supplentation decreases concentrations of atorvastatin. Use of thiazide diuretics in combination with calcium and vitamin D supplements may cause hypercalcemia in the elderly or those with compromised renal function or hyperparathyroidism  .