Roles of Ubiquitination and SUMOylation in DNA Damage Response
Current Issues in Molecular Biology
Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like modifiers, such as SUMO, exert distinct physiological functions by conjugating to protein substrates. Ubiquitination or SUMOylation of protein substrates determine the fate of modified proteins, including proteasomal degradation, cellular re-localization, alternations in binding partners and serving as a protein-binding platform, in a ubiquitin or SUMO linkage-dependent manner. DNA damage occurs constantly in living organisms but is also repaired by distinct tightly
... by distinct tightly controlled mechanisms including homologous recombination, non-homologous end joining, inter-strand crosslink repair, nucleotide excision repair and base excision repair. On sensing damaged DNA, a ubiquitination/SUMOylation landscape is established to recruit DNA damage repair factors. Meanwhile, misloaded and mission-completed repair factors will be turned over by ubiquitin or SUMO modifications as well. These ubiquitination and SUMOylation events are tightly controlled by both E3 ubiquitin/SUMO ligases and deubiquitinases/deSUMOylases. In this review, we will summarize identified ubiquitin and SUMO-related modifications and their function in distinct DNA damage repair pathways, and provide evidence for responsible E3 ligases, deubiquitinases, SUMOylases and deSUMOylases in these processes. Given that genome instability leads to human disorders including cancer, understanding detailed molecular mechanisms for ubiquitin and SUMO-related regulations in DNA damage response may provide novel insights into therapeutic modalities to treat human diseases associated with deregulated DNA damage response.