Transformational Leadership, Systems, and Intrinsic Motivation Impacts on Innovation in Higher Education Institutes: Faculty Perspectives in Engineering Colleges
Learning institutes are unique places for innovation, technical transformations, and social changes, which are the main pillars for sustainable development. The purpose of this study was to examine the innovation capacity building through the impact of transformational leadership on followers' satisfaction and output in two engineering colleges: one in a public university in the United States and the other in an International Branch Campus in Qatar. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire was
... Questionnaire was used to assess leadership style, and three output indicators were chosen to represent innovative outputs. Innovation-driven systems and Intrinsic motivation were other innovation drivers assessed through the designed survey. The Statistical Package of Social Science was used to identify the correlated constructs of leadership styles and outcomes. The explanatory sequential mixed method helped explain the underlying reasons for the quantitative results through interviews with faculty. The study showed that leaders (deans) exhibited different ranges of transformational leadership styles, yet were lower than the norm. Moreover, transformational leadership traits, in addition to contingent rewards from transactional leadership, were highly correlated with followers' satisfaction with the leader and the system. As this was a cross-cultural study, context affected the participation rate and response results, as hesitation to evaluate the dean was common in a high power–distance context.