Examination of Cinnamomum camphora interlocked grain adopting X-ray computed tomography combined with particle image velocimetry
Journal of Wood Science
AbstractTrees develop wood grain more or less parallel to the tree axis as they grow laterally. However, many tree species also develop interlocked grain that is expressed as a change in the wood grain orientation, periodically switching between left- and right-handed spirals over the years. Wood grain information is critical to determining the wood quality and is an important record of cellular events in a cambium. This study examined the wood grain of axial xylem cells in the semi-ring porous
... hardwood Cinnamomum camphora by first visualizing the three-dimensional structure using a conventional X-ray computed tomography instrument producing tomography images. We propose the use of particle image velocimetry (PIV) and the two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D-FFT) to analyze computed tomography images in obtaining grain angle (δ) information from the vessel deviation. We found undulation on the radial variation of the grain angle (δ) that indicates periodical changes in the wood grain orientation as left- and right-handed spirals ranging from − 25° to 16° and − 22° to 18° using the 2D-FFT and PIV, respectively. Furthermore, despite the major orientation of vessels inclining in the tangential direction, the PIV result revealed a minor deviation with vessels inclining in various orientations along the tree radius.