Diagnosis and Treatment of Scaphoid Waist Fractures: A Literature Review
Journal of Orthopedic and Spine Trauma
Scaphoid fracture can cause serious complications and its diagnosis and treatment approaches are still contentious. Tenderness of anatomical snuffbox (ASB), longitudinal compression (LC) of the thumb, and scaphoid tubercle (ST) tenderness are very sensitive tests for clinical diagnosis of scaphoid factures all together. Previous studies recommend taking four standard views of the wrist for non-displaced scaphoid fractures diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography scan (CT
... tomography scan (CT scan), bone scintigraphy, and ultrasound are used for triage of suspected scaphoid fractures. MRI has the highest sensitivity and specificity. CT scan images captured in planes by the long axis of the scaphoid guide the diagnosis of nondisplaced scaphoid fracture. Displaced fractures need surgical treatment, but the best way of treating a nondisplaced fracture is controversial. Same results have been determined using a short arm or long arm cast for treatment of nondisplaced scaphoid fractures as well as similar outcomes with or without a thumb-spica component to the cast. Wrist position immobilization did not affect the rate of nonunion, wrist flexion, pain, or grip strength. Percutaneous screw fixation can shorten return to work time. CT scan and MRI both can be applied for assessment of union of fracture during follow-up period. This study aims to review the literature on challenges about clinical and radiologic diagnosis of nondisplaced scaphoid fractures and also present concepts about definite management of nondisplaced and minimally-displaced scaphoid waist fractures.