Turbulent mixing and heat fluxes under lake ice: the role of seiche oscillations

Georgiy Kirillin, Ilya Aslamov, Matti Leppäranta, Elisa Lindgren
2018 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions  
<p><strong>Abstract.</strong> We performed a field study on mixing and vertical heat transport under ice cover of an Arctic lake. Mixing intensities were estimated from small-scale oscillations of water temperature and turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates derived from current velocity fluctuations. Well-developed turbulent conditions prevailed in the stably stratified interfacial layer separating the ice base from the warmer deep waters. The source of turbulent mixing was identified as
more » ... as identified as whole-lake (barotropic) oscillations of the water body driven by strong wind events over the ice surface. We derive a scaling of ice-water heat flux based on dissipative Kolmogorov scales and successfully tested against measured dissipation rates and under-ice temperature gradients. The results discard the conventional assumption of nearly conductive heat transport within the stratified under-ice layer and suggest contribution of the basal heat flux into the melt of ice cover is higher than commonly assumed. Decline of the seasonal ice cover in the Arctic is currently gaining recognition as a major indicator of climate change. The heat transfer at the ice-water interface remains the least studied among the mechanisms governing the growth and melting of seasonal ice. The outcomes of the study find application in heat budget of seasonal ice on inland and coastal waters.</p>
doi:10.5194/hess-2018-376 fatcat:mb2fi7x4knh77f37vxd27awex4