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The assumption that per capita consumer effects on prey density are independent of consumer and prey density is examined with a large-scale manipulation of an aquatic herbivore (Daphnia). A gradient of consumer removal was maintained long enough to allow the abundances of both consumer and prey (phytoplankton) to equilibrate to the manipulation. Strong and unequivocal nonlinearities were found in the effect of Daphnia on total phytoplankton abundance and the abundance of most of the commondoi:10.1086/367881 pmid:12699225 fatcat:evzlgqf3ivebzcelq3f5mtdwcq