Osteocalcin prevents insulin resistance, hepatic inflammation and autophagy associated with high-fat diet induced fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome in aged laying hens
Sha Jiang, Xiaoling Wu, Xinyu Zou, Mi Zhang, Haiqiang Hu, Xueliang Wei, Meilan Jin, Hengwei Cheng
Background: Osteocalcin (OCN), as an energy-regulating hormone, involves in preventing nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Laying hens have been used as an animal model for investigating liver function and related metabolic disordersas that the synthesis of fat in laying hens is much faster than in mammals with limited adipose tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of OCN on fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) in aged laying hens. Methods: Thirty 68-week-old White Plymouth
... ying hens were randomly assigned into conventional single-bird cages, and the cages were randomly allocated into one of three treatments: normal diet (ND + vehicle , ND+V), high-fat diet (HFD + vehicle, HFD+V), and HFD + OCN (3 μg/bird, 1 time/2 days, i.m.) for 40 days. At experimental day 30, oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and insulin tolerance tests (ITT) were performed. At the end of experiment, the hens were euthanized followed blood collection. The plasma aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were measured using an automatic biochemistry analyzer. Pathological changes in the liver were examined under both light and transmission electron microscopes. The plasma inflammatory factors including interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, and tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) were analyzed by ELISA, and the gene expressions of these inflammatory factors in the liver were analyzed by Real-time PCR. And oxidative stress was evaluated using Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) assay kits. Results: The results showed HFD hens had more severe liver haemorrhage and fibrosis than ND hens. The ultra-microstructural examination showed that hepatocytes of HFD hens appeared necrotic pyknosis associated with great intracellular electron, mitochondrial swelling, shrunk nucleus and absence of autolysosomes. OCN mitigated these pathological changes by improved HFD hens' insulin resistance via alleviating the glucose intolerence and improving insulin sensitivity; inhibited HFD-induced oxidative stress as evidenced by decreased liver concentrations of MDA but increased GSH-Px; and reduced the inflammatory reaction with reducing blood IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations and mRNA expressions. Conclusion: These results suggest a high-fat diet promotes the FLHS development in aged hens, while OCN prevents the FLHS process through inhibiting insulin resistance, inflammatory reaction, oxidative stress and fibrosis, and acting autophagy.