Eukarion-134 attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in human skeletal muscle cells
Maladaptive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is associated with modified reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, altered mitochondrial bioenergetics, and oxidative damage; and is postulated as a potential mechanism involved in the underlying muscle weakness experienced by patients with myositis, an acquired autoimmune neuromuscular disease. In this study, we investigate the impact of ROS generation in an in vitro model of ER stress in skeletal muscle, using the ER stress inducer tunicamycin
... nducer tunicamycin (24 hours) in presence or absence of a superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic Eukarion (EUK)-134. ER stress activation, ROS generation, mitochondrial function, biogenesis, morphology and dynamics (fusion/fission) were examined. Tunicamycin induced maladaptive ER stress, validated by stimulation of GRP94, GRP78, CHOP, XBP-1, ERDJ4, and GADD34, which were mostly mitigated by EUK-134 at transcriptional level. ER stress triggered mitochondrial unfolded protein response and promoted mitochondrial dysfunction, described by substantial loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, as well as reduction of respiratory control ratio, reserve capacity, phosphorylating respiration, and coupling efficiency, which was ameliorated by EUK-134. ROS-mediated biogenesis and fusion of mitochondria was evident in presence of tunicamycin, which however, had high propensity of fragmentation, accompanied by upregulated mRNA levels of fission-related markers. Increased cellular ROS generation oxidative stress was observed in response to ER stress that was ameliorated in the presence of EUK-134, even though no changes in mitochondrial superoxide were noticeable. These findings suggest that targeting ROS generation using the superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic EUK-134 can amend aspects of ER stress-induced changes in mitochondrial dynamics and function. Overall, this study suggests that in instances of chronic ER stress, such as in myositis, quenching ROS generation may be a promising therapy for muscle weakness and dysfunction.