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Spin and orbital angular momentum in gauge theories (I): QED and determination of the angular momentum density
[article]

2007
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arXiv
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pre-print

This two-paper series addresses and fixes the long-standing gauge invariance problem of angular momentum in gauge theories. This QED part reveals: 1) The spin and orbital angular momenta of electrons and photons can all be consistently defined gauge invariantly. 2) These gauge-invariant quantities can be conveniently computed via the canonical, gauge-dependent operators (e.g, $\psi ^\dagger \vec x \times\frac 1i \vec \nabla \psi$) in the Coulomb gauge, which is in fact what people

arXiv:0709.3649v1
fatcat:krhq2ag5yjg4lktsh4qomzphfm