Interaction of a House's Rooftop PV System with an Electric Vehicle's Battery Storage and Air Source Heat Pump
Understanding the implications of introducing increasing shares of low-carbon technologies such as heat pumps and electric vehicles on the electricity network demand patterns is essential in today's fast changing energy mixture. Application of heat pumps for heating and cooling, combined with the rooftop installation of photovoltaic panels, is already considered as a convenient retrofitting strategy towards building electrification. This may further profit from the parallel, rapid
... n of the automotive powertrain, as demonstrated in the present study. Exploitation of the combined battery storage of the house owners' electric car(s) may help cover, to a significant degree, the building's and cars' electricity needs. To this end, an efficient single family house's energy system with an optimized rooftop PV installation, heat pump heating and cooling, and two high efficiency electric cars is studied by transient simulation. The use of TRNSYS simulation environment makes clear the interaction of the house's heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system, the house's and cars' batteries, and the rooftop PV system in transient operation. The building's and EV's energy performance on a daily, monthly, and seasonal level is compared with the respective demand curves and energy sources of the Greek electricity network. The specific design of the house's energy system makes it a net exporter of electricity to the grid, to an annual amount of 5000 kWh. On the other hand, electricity imports are slightly exceeding 400 kWh and limited to the first two months of the year. In addition to the self-sufficiency of the household, the impact to the electricity grid becomes favorable due to the phase shift of the electricity export towards the late afternoon hours, thus assisting the evening ramp-up and adding to the grid's stability and resilience. Based on the results of this study, the possibility of combining the financial incentives for the purchase of an EV with those for the installation of rooftop PV in the owners' house is very promising and worth considering, due to the demonstrated synergy of electrical storage with the rooftop photovoltaic installations.