Simulation of bubbles in foam with the volume control method

Byungmoon Kim, Yingjie Liu, Ignacio Llamas, Xiangmin Jiao, Jarek Rossignac
2007 ACM SIGGRAPH 2007 papers on - SIGGRAPH '07  
Figure 1 : When the level set is advected by the BFECC [Dupont and Liu 2003] method, the simulation of a rising bubble produces volume loss (top). When the proposed volume control method is used, the volume of bubble is preserved regardless of the length of the simulation (bottom). From left to right, each column shows the bubble at t = 0, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 10.0 second. The image on the far right shows a foam structure obtained after raising more than 400 bubbles. Abstract Liquid
more » ... Abstract Liquid and gas interactions often produce bubbles that stay for a long time without bursting on the surface, making a dry foam structure. Such long lasting bubbles simulated by the level set method can suffer from a small but steady volume error that accumulates to a visible amount of volume change. We propose to address this problem by using the volume control method. We track the volume change of each connected region, and apply a carefully computed divergence that compensates undesired volume changes. To compute the divergence, we construct a mathematical model of the volume change, choose control strategies that regulate the modeled volume error, and establish methods to compute the control gains that provide robust and fast reduction of the volume error, and (if desired) the control of how the volume changes over time.
doi:10.1145/1275808.1276500 fatcat:24gh2g34anfsfedesgazhydp7a