Brain Symptoms of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: Pathogenesis and Treatment

Masashi Mizuguchi, Maki Ohsawa, Hirofumi Kashii, Atsushi Sato
2021 International Journal of Molecular Sciences  
The mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) system plays multiple, important roles in the brain, regulating both morphology, such as cellular size, shape, and position, and function, such as learning, memory, and social interaction. Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a congenital disorder caused by a defective suppressor of the mTOR system, the TSC1/TSC2 complex. Almost all brain symptoms of TSC are manifestations of an excessive activity of the mTOR system. Many children with TSC are
more » ... d by intractable epilepsy, intellectual disability, and/or autism. In the brains of infants with TSC, a vicious cycle of epileptic encephalopathy is formed by mTOR hyperactivity, abnormal synaptic structure/function, and excessive epileptic discharges, further worsening epilepsy and intellectual/behavioral disorders. Molecular target therapy with mTOR inhibitors has recently been proved to be efficacious for epilepsy in human TSC patients, and for autism in TSC model mice, indicating the possibility for pharmacological treatment of developmental synaptic disorders.
doi:10.3390/ijms22136677 pmid:34206526 pmcid:PMC8268912 fatcat:epziyxvtpvbfzm7bl5tb5bqaji