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This paper responds to Kaber's reflections on the empirical grounding and design utility of the Levels of Automation (LOA) framework. We discuss the suitability of the existing human performance data for supporting design decisions in complex work environments. We question why human factors design guidance seems wedded to a model of questionable predictive value. We challenge the belief that LOA frameworks offer useful input to the design and operation of highly automated systems. Finally, wedoi:10.1177/1555343417732856 fatcat:3nstja7lfndotbt7o4f27axtbq