A Comprehensive Statistical Study on Daytime Surface Urban Heat Island during Summer in Urban Areas, Case Study: Cairo and Its New Towns
Surface urban heat island (SUHI) is defined as the elevated land surface temperature (LST) in urban area in comparison with non-urban areas, and it can influence the energy consumption, comfort and health of urban residents. In this study, the existence of daytime SUHI, in Cairo and its new towns during the summer, is investigated using three different approaches; (1) utilization of pre-urbanization observations as LST references; (2) utilization of rural observations as LST references
... references (urban-rural difference); and (3) utilization of the SIUHI (Surface Intra Urban Heat Island) approach. A time series of Landsat TM & ETM+ data (46 images) from 1984 to 2015 was employed in this study for daytime LST calculation during summer. Different statistical hypothesis tests were utilized for the evaluation of LST and SUHI in the case studies. The results demonstrated that there is no significant LST difference between the urban areas studied, and their corresponding built-up areas. In addition, daytime LST in new towns during the summer is 2 K warmer than in Cairo. Utilization of a pre-urbanization observations approach, alongside an evaluation of the long-term trend, demonstrated that there is no daytime SUHI during the summer in the study areas, and construction activities in the study areas do not result in cooling or warming effects. Utilization of the rural observations approach showed that LST is lower in Cairo than its surrounding areas. This demonstrates why the selection of suitable rural references in SUHI studies is an important and complicated task, and how this approach may lead to misinterpretation in desert city areas with significant landscape and surface difference with their most surrounding areas (e.g., Cairo). Results showed that, although SIUHI technique can be representative for the changes of variance of LST in urban areas, it is not able to identify the changes of mean LST in urban areas. latent heat from evapotranspiration, lower albedo) cause a change in the energy budget of the urban area, leading to higher surface temperatures, called surface urban heat island (SUHI). Although the surface temperature in an urban area can have significant difference to its surrounding rural areas during daytime, the largest air temperature difference is observed after sunset and during the night . Heat stored by surfaces and features in urban areas during the daytime is released at nighttime, and it has a lot of influence on the development of atmospheric heat island at nighttime. Hence, daytime SUHI can be an indicator for occurrence of nighttime atmospheric heat island in urban areas. The population of the world that is living in urban areas is increasing. In 1950, around 29% of the global population lived in urban areas. This proportion had grown to 47% by the year 2000, and it is predicted that this will grow to 69% by the year 2050 . Thus, urban areas are continuously growing  , and the number of people exposed to temperature and heat stress impact is expected to increase  . The combined effects of growing urbanization and demographic change (e.g., population aging) increase both the risk of heat stress, and its mortality rates     . The relationship between elevated temperature and mortality has been reviewed by Basu and Samet  . The average heat-related mortality in Cairo during summer (June-August) is about 300 persons . Strzepek and Smith  showed that the heat-related mortality rate in Cairo is about 4.5 per 100,000 people. The mortality rate in Cairo during summer (June-August) increases rapidly as the temperature increases , and 4˝C warming can increase the heat-related mortality rate from 4.5 to 19.3 per 100,000 people  . Most studies into the relationship between temperature and mortality have shown that elderly people are most greatly affected by the increase in temperature, because of a reduced ability for thermoregulation [12, 13] . Children are another group sensitive to temperature  , as their bodies lack sufficient thermoregulation capacity  . UHI exerts significant thermal stress on vulnerable people during warm conditions  , and can seriously affect energy consumption in hot conditions  . In the near future, the problem of the urban heat island may become a more important issue than that of global warming, as the rate of urban warming may be faster than the rate of global warming  . Urban areas in temperate zones often show SUHI during the daytime. Cities in deserts, however, often show different thermal behaviors, and sometimes show surface urban cool island (SUCI)  . The surrounding areas of Kuwait city are desert, and the built-up areas in Kuwait city have had lower temperatures than its surrounding areas.  . Lazzarini et al.  found daytime SUCI in Abu-Dhabi, UAE, and Frey et al.  found daytime SUCI in Dubai, UAE. Although UHI studies have been carried out in many American, European and Asian urban areas, there are only a few studies on UHI in African cities  . Given the impact of UHI, it is necessary that it be investigated in African urban areas, especially during the warm seasons in mega cities. Since the advent of thermal remote sensing technology, it has been possible to estimate SUHI in urban areas. Rao  utilized remote sensing for SUHI investigation. Gallo et al.  reviewed the urban heat island estimation techniques using satellite data, and Voogt and Oke  reviewed studies that have employed thermal remotely sensed data for the investigation of urban climate. In recent decades, Landsat-TM & ETM+ (Thematic Mapper & Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus) data have been widely used for land surface temperature (LST) and urban heat island studies, and many studies have demonstrated the potential of Landsat data for surface temperature estimation (e.g., [16,                   ). There is no special threshold to define the urban heat island, and a reference is necessary for the estimation of UHI. Pre-urbanization observations are ideal references for the estimation of UHI , but these observations are often not available. Hence, rural or non-urban references have often been employed in UHI studies. The urban-rural contrast is different to the contrast between the pre-urban and current urban temperature. Rural areas are defined as the non-urban areas that surround an urban area. These areas can, however, include agricultural land, and other areas that have been altered by human activity. The complexity involved in selection of rural references for estimation of SUHI intensity led to develop a new definition of SUHI that excludes rural references and it is called SIUHI (Surface ERAfrica ERANET for funding this project. In addition, the authors thank David Mottram for his valuable proofreading of this paper.