Phylogenetic Assignment of the Fungicolous Hypoxylon invadens (Ascomycota, Xylariales) and Investigation of its Secondary Metabolites
The ascomycete Hypoxylon invadens was described in 2014 as a fungicolous species growing on a member of its own genus, H.fragiforme, which is considered a rare lifestyle in the Hypoxylaceae. This renders H.invadens an interesting target in our efforts to find new bioactive secondary metabolites from members of the Xylariales. So far, only volatile organic compounds have been reported from H.invadens, but no investigation of non-volatile compounds had been conducted. Furthermore, a phylogenetic
... ssignment following recent trends in fungal taxonomy via a multiple sequence alignment seemed practical. A culture of H.invadens was thus subjected to submerged cultivation to investigate the produced secondary metabolites, followed by isolation via preparative chromatography and subsequent structure elucidation by means of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS). This approach led to the identification of the known flaviolin (1) and 3,3-biflaviolin (2) as the main components, which had never been reported from the order Xylariales before. Assessment of their antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects via a panel of commonly used microorganisms and cell lines in our laboratory did not yield any effects of relevance. Concurrently, genomic DNA from the fungus was used to construct a multigene phylogeny using ribosomal sequence information from the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), the 28S large subunit of ribosomal DNA (LSU), and proteinogenic nucleotide sequences from the second largest subunit of the DNA-directed RNA polymerase II (RPB2) and β-tubulin (TUB2) genes. A placement in a newly formed clade with H.trugodes was strongly supported in a maximum-likelihood (ML) phylogeny using sequences derived from well characterized strains, but the exact position of said clade remains unclear. Both, the chemical and the phylogenetic results suggest further inquiries into the lifestyle of this unique fungus to get a better understanding of both, its ecological role and function of its produced secondary metabolites hitherto unique to the Xylariales.