Mavlyuda Yusupova
2012 Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization Fall   unpublished
With the introduction of Islam in VIII century on the territory of modern Uzbekistan, an expressive Islamic architecture was shaped, based on the rich local traditions. New types of religious constructions came up. Islamic architecture in Uzbekistan was enriched during the period of 10 th-12 th and of 14 th-17 th centuries. It had common regional lines, as well as features from local architectural schools of Bukhara, Samarkand, Khwarazm and Fergana. Among the various types of architectural
more » ... architectural structures, the most widespread are the portal-domed compositions for mausoleums, khanaqahs, maqsuras, etc., courtyard-iwan structure for Jamie-mosques, madrasahs, rabats and most memorial complexes. There were three basic types of mosque constructions: quarter, Jami-mosques and celebratory mosques, musallas or namazgahs. Minarets also had local features in the form of a lantern and a decor of a cylindrical trunk. Mausoleums were actively constructed from the end of 9 th century up to the 15 th century but during 16 th-17 th centuries, the practice was abandoned. Madrasahs became known here from the 10 th century onwards. Earliest three of them, built by Ulugbek in 15 th century have remained in Bukhara, Samarkand and Gijduvan. Khanaqah-based on a portal-domed structure with a spacious central prayer hall called dzikr-khana, played the role of monasteries and prayer hall for Sufis. From the 15 th-17 th centuries, most monumental khanaqahs were popular here. The Naqshbandi sufi order was constructed. More than 2,200 monuments of Islamic architecture dating from 9 th-20 th centuries have been preserved in Uzbekistan. Most of them are located in large cities along the Great Silk Road as Bukhara, Samarkand, Khiva and Shakhrisabz are included into the World Heritage List of UNESCO.