LITERARY THEORY OF VAKROKTI AND RUSSIAN FORMALISM

Madhu Sharma
2015 An International Refereed e-Journal of Literary   unpublished
The language of literature has been in the focus in many literary theories. Most of the modern literary theories i.e. Formalism, New Criticism, Stylistics, Structuralism, Post Structuralism, Discourse Analysis, Semiotics and Dialogic Criticism in one or the other way emphasize the study of the language in order to understand the meaning of a piece of literary work. Various theorists have reflected on the question of language and they have made several exploratory contributions on many issues
more » ... ing a distinct bearing on poetry and poetic expression. Objectives: This paper seeks to explore the intersection between the Indian and Russian Formalist thinking about the language of literature and concept of Vakrokti therein. Vakrokti consists of 'vakra' and 'ukti' which literary means a 'bent 'or 'marked' expression in the language of literature. The devices of Foregrounding used by Russian Formalists and the concept of 'vakrata' originated through Indian Poeticians can be usefully compared. The Indian theory of vakrokti is a viable theory of the language of poetry and Russian Formalism concerns with autonomy and specificity of language. Research methodology: The study was carried out based on existing research and secondary data from various sources. Language of literature in one way or the other differs from the common day to day language of normal communication. Indian Poeticians declare svabhavokti as the traditional and common form of language while vakrokti as the marked or literary language. Wordsworth at one hand opines that the language of literature should be simple and easy to understand and believes that a poet is a man speaking to men therefore he must make use of such a language as is used by men. For him such use of language being emotional and passionate comes from the heart and goes direct to the heart. Thus it helps in communicating essential truths about human life and nature more easily and clearly. On the other hand Coleridge, Eliot and others believe that language is a matter of words and their arrangement, vocabulary and syntax and use of imagery and the frequency and use of this imagery. They proclaim that there is a difference between the rustic language and the language used by men in other walks of life. Every man's language varies, according to the extent of his knowledge, the activity of his faculties and the depth of quickness of his feelings. Moreover language is letter moulded which are derived from the reflective acts of the mind and this reflection grows with the advancements of civilization.
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