THE ADVANTAGE OR DISADVANTAGE OF UNITING THE LOCK AND BLOCK SIGNALLING APPLIANCES OF RAILWAYS. SECOND METROPOLITAN ENGINEERING CONFERENCE, 7 JUNE 1899. NOTES INTRODUCING SUBJECTS FOR DISCUSSION. SECTION 1 - RAILWAYS

A ROSS
1899 Minutes of the Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers  
Where the ground permits of alternative routes for an ascent, it is useful to work out, by the method of equivalent lengths on the straight and level, the traffic and haulage features of each. The result of this calculation, taken in connection with the estimated cost of the respective routes, will enable an opinion t o be formed as to the value of each scheme relatively to the outlay involved. Where there is a choice of gauge, the broader it is, the better ; for this enables engines with wider
more » ... fire-boxes and larger heating surfaces t o be used. Where great power is required, the locomotive builder is often cramped in his design by being tied to too narrow a gauge. The question of adequate brake power on the descent is as important for safety as is that of sufficient tractive power on the ascent for making the line profitable. For this object the air-brakes now in general use are most serviceable on adhesion lines ; while on the rack railways carrying heavy trains on inclines as steep as 1 in 12, the employment of the rack cylinders as air-brakes on the descent, and the grip of the pinion in the rack, furnish useful auxiliaries. Each railway presents a separate problem, and no general rules can be laid down; but the above are some of the most important points which require attention. In opening a discussion on this subject, it is desirable to consider shortly the interlocking of points and signals, and the block system as worked by means of electric telegraph instruments. A railway is naturally divided into sections by the stations provided t o accommodate the traffic at various places along the route through which it passes; and these, with some supplementary places where the distances between stations are too long, form convenient divisions of the line for controlling and working the traffic. A signal-box is placed at the end of each section, and in it is fixed the " locking frame " containing the levers for working the
doi:10.1680/imotp.1899.18922 fatcat:vwnwelmex5eornjtzsovbimkn4