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It is widely known that a crisis in science and mathematics teaching exists in the United States. This crisis has reached all levels of education, from elementary to secondary to colleges and universities. The problem, which is easy to define but difficult to resolve, is trifold: there are not enough high-quality science and mathematics teachers; present teachers are teaching out-of field or are out-of-date and in need of subject updating; and the average education graduate is only minimallydoi:10.1017/s025292110008698x fatcat:iq63l6v2gvga5fr77qd4va7cfe