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AbstractGuala notes that low-cost punishment is the main mechanism that deters free-riding in small human communities. This mechanism is complemented by unusual human vulnerability to gossip. Defenders of an evolutionary discontinuity supporting human sociality might seize on this as an alternative to enjoyment of moralistic aggression as a special adaptation. However, the more basic adaptation of language likely suffices.doi:10.1017/s0140525x11000896 pmid:22289327 fatcat:vd6xkwowvvbxzob4cipfpiyrfe