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As the main component for modern main memory system, DRAM stores data by capacitors, which must be refreshed periodically to keep the charges. As the size and speed of DRAM devices continue to increase, the overhead of refresh has caused a great power and performance dissipation. In this paper, we proposed a CAM (content-addressable memory)-based Retention-Aware DRAM (CRA-DRAM) system, a hardware implementation that uses CAM and RAM to locate and replace the leaky cells at the IO granularity.doi:10.1587/elex.14.20170053 fatcat:2v4pwkznrvglrlris5gjtqj6kq