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Since the prediction by Dietl et al. in the year 2000, extensive research activities have been focused on the ZnObased diluted magnetic materials (DMSs). Earlier works were mainly performed using bulk or thin film materials with transition-metal doping, and diverse magnetic properties including ferromagnetism, paramagnetism, and diamagnetism have been reported. Identifying the dominant mechanism of the ferromagnetic ordering and realizing reproducible ferromagnetism above room temperature havedoi:10.3906/fiz-1405-17 fatcat:yuxnhwfmmfatzcx4hztxvbdosa