On Training Targets and Activation Functions for Deep Representation Learning in Text-Dependent Speaker Verification [article]

Achintya kr. Sarkar, Zheng-Hua Tan
2022 arXiv   pre-print
Deep representation learning has gained significant momentum in advancing text-dependent speaker verification (TD-SV) systems. When designing deep neural networks (DNN) for extracting bottleneck features, key considerations include training targets, activation functions, and loss functions. In this paper, we systematically study the impact of these choices on the performance of TD-SV. For training targets, we consider speaker identity, time-contrastive learning (TCL) and auto-regressive
more » ... on coding with the first being supervised and the last two being self-supervised. Furthermore, we study a range of loss functions when speaker identity is used as the training target. With regard to activation functions, we study the widely used sigmoid function, rectified linear unit (ReLU), and Gaussian error linear unit (GELU). We experimentally show that GELU is able to reduce the error rates of TD-SV significantly compared to sigmoid, irrespective of training target. Among the three training targets, TCL performs the best. Among the various loss functions, cross entropy, joint-softmax and focal loss functions outperform the others. Finally, score-level fusion of different systems is also able to reduce the error rates. Experiments are conducted on the RedDots 2016 challenge database for TD-SV using short utterances. For the speaker classifications, the well-known Gaussian mixture model-universal background model (GMM-UBM) and i-vector techniques are used.
arXiv:2201.06426v1 fatcat:kt7wb4tfs5eqfc5t5vnqncyj6i