Narrative review of management of thyroid surgery complications

Shan Jin, Iwao Sugitani
2021 Gland surgery  
Currently, thyroid surgery is the most common and safe operation worldwide. However, thyroidectomy is still not free from the risks of complications and death due to the anatomical structure and physiological function particularity of the thyroid gland. Postoperative complications affect the life quality and life safety of patients after surgery. The common complications include hypoparathyroidism (HP), recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury, injury to the external branch of the superior
more » ... al nerve (EBSLN), postoperative bleeding (PB), thoracic duct injury, laryngeal edema, tracheospasm, tracheal injury, and esophageal injury. A severe complication, such as dyspnea, asphyxia, or thyroid crisis, might cause the death of the patient. Therefore, every thyroid surgeon's responsibility is to remain alert and aware of the occurrence of various intraoperative and postoperative complications and exercise effective prevention and treatment. This is closely related to the advancement in thyroid disease research, the increase in local anatomy knowledge, the standardization of surgical approaches, the improvement in operating skills, the application of new technologies, and the emphasis on specialty training. In addition, many complications that effect patients are much better tolerated if the patient has appropriate expectations of what the complications are and how to treat them. Open communication between surgeon and patient optimizes the potential negative effects that complications may have on patients' quality of life. This paper discusses the prevention, recognition and therapy of intraoperative and postoperative complications in thyroid surgery.
doi:10.21037/gs-20-859 pmid:33842257 pmcid:PMC8033047 fatcat:ha72oxcemrej3njt2p6qmksgha