Mapping of Motor Function with Neuronavigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Review on Clinical Application in Brain Tumors and Methods for Ensuring Feasible Accuracy

Nico Sollmann, Sandro M. Krieg, Laura Säisänen, Petro Julkunen
2021 Brain Sciences  
Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) has developed into a reliable non-invasive clinical and scientific tool over the past decade. Specifically, it has undergone several validating clinical trials that demonstrated high agreement with intraoperative direct electrical stimulation (DES), which paved the way for increasing application for the purpose of motor mapping in patients harboring motor-eloquent intracranial neoplasms. Based on this clinical use case of the technique, in this
more » ... article we review the evidence for the feasibility of motor mapping and derived models (risk stratification and prediction, nTMS-based fiber tracking, improvement of clinical outcome, and assessment of functional plasticity), and provide collected sets of evidence for the applicability of quantitative mapping with nTMS. In addition, we provide evidence-based demonstrations on factors that ensure methodological feasibility and accuracy of the motor mapping procedure. We demonstrate that selection of the stimulation intensity (SI) for nTMS and spatial density of stimuli are crucial factors for applying motor mapping accurately, while also demonstrating the effect on the motor maps. We conclude that while the application of nTMS motor mapping has been impressively spread over the past decade, there are still variations in the applied protocols and parameters, which could be optimized for the purpose of reliable quantitative mapping.
doi:10.3390/brainsci11070897 fatcat:34m6brg75fbhlc7fhmniroc3ey