Understanding Perceptual Boundaries in Laparoscopic Surgery

P. Lamata, E.J. Gomez, F.L. Hernandez, A.O. Pastor, F.M. Sanchez-Margallo, F. del Pozo Guerrero
2008 IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering  
Human perceptual capabilities related to the laparoscopic interaction paradigm are not well known. Its study is important for the design of virtual reality simulators, and for the specification of augmented reality applications that overcome current limitations and provide a supersensing to the surgeon. As part of this work, this article addresses the study of laparoscopic pulling forces. Two definitions are proposed to focalize the problem: the perceptual fidelity boundary, limit of human
more » ... ptual capabilities, and the Utile fidelity boundary, that encapsulates the perceived aspects actually used by surgeons to guide an operation. The study is then aimed to define the perceptual fidelity boundary of laparoscopic pulling forces. This is approached with an experimental design in which surgeons assess the resistance against pulling of four different tissues, which are characterized with both in vivo interaction forces and ex vivo tissue biomechanical properties. A logarithmic law of tissue consistency perception is found comparing subjective valorizations with objective parameters. A model of this perception is developed identifying what the main parameters are: the grade of fixation of the organ, the tissue stiffness, the amount of tissue bitten, and the organ mass being pulled. These results are a clear requirement analysis for the force feedback algorithm of a virtual reality laparoscopic simulator. Finally, some discussion is raised about the suitability of augmented reality applications around this surgical gesture. Index Terms-Force feedback (FF), human factors, laparoscopy, virtual reality (VR) simulation requirements.
doi:10.1109/tbme.2007.908068 pmid:18334378 fatcat:o6uywb2uondvzmhgub6lv6y6j4