The effect of sex hormone on COVID-19: analysis of laboratory-confirmed 5061 patients in South Korea
Limited data describing the effect of sex hormone on coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is available. We evaluated the effect of sex hormone on prevalence and clinical outcomes of COVID-19. Retrospective cohort study was performed using the nationwide claims data of 5061 adult patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in South Korea, from January 20 to April 8, 2020. COVID-19 was most prevalent in women of the 20-39 age group (1250 [44.14%]). Men were more likely to receive oxygen therapy (144
... gen therapy (144 [6.46%] vs 131 [4.63%], P=0.004), be admitted to the intensive care unit (60 [2.69%] vs 53 [1.87%], P=0.049), and stay longer after admission to the intensive care unit (19.70±11.80 vs 14.75±9.23, P=0.016). However, there was no significant difference in mortality rates between men and women. In multivariable Cox analysis, independent risk factors for mortality were older age and underlying co-morbidities, rather than sex. To evaluate the effect of HRT among women, subgroup analysis was implemented using age-matched case-control data with a 1:3 ratio of females receiving HRT to those who did not. HRT did not have statistically significant association with clinical outcomes. This study suggests that sex hormone may not affect prevalence and clinical outcome of COVID-19 in South Korea.