Physical Activity and Body Composition [chapter]

Angela Andreoli, Antonino De Lorenzo
2005 World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics  
Public health guidelines focus primarily on the promotion of physical activity and steady state aerobic exercise, which enhances cardiorespiratory fitness and has some impact on body composition (BC). BC is an essential measure of health and fitness for both athletes and the general population. Research demonstrates that resistance exercise training has profound effects on the musculoskeletal system, contributes to the maintenance of functional abilities, and prevents osteoporosis, sarcopenia,
more » ... rosis, sarcopenia, lower back pain, and other disabilities. Recent research demonstrates that resistance training may positively affect risk factors such as insulin resistance, resting metabolic rate, glucose metabolism, blood pressure, body fat, and gastrointestinal transit time, which are associated with diabetes, heart disease, and cancer [1] . Physical activity has an effect on BC, especially on skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle is the largest nonadipose tissue component at the tissue-system level of body composition in humans and it plays an important role in physical activity and many biochemical processes [2]. Fat-free mass (FFM) has commonly been used as a surrogate measure of skeletal muscle mass but does not always accurately reflect specific changes in muscle mass or differences in muscle mass among individuals. A fairly new approach to assess BC is to measure body cell mass (BCM). BCM is defined as the total mass of 'oxygen-exchanging, potassium-rich, glucose-oxidizing, work-performing' cells of the body [3]. A total body potassium (TBK)-independent BCM prediction model on the basis of an earlier model has been developed by Wang et al. [4]. They have provided a physiologically based, improved, and validated TBK-BCM prediction formula that should prove useful in BC and metabolism research. Physical activity appears to have a beneficial effect on bone mass. Furthermore, physical activity with greater mechanical loading appears to result in WRN94060.qxd 4/11/05 4:57 PM Page 60 P r o o f Physical Activity and Body Composition 61 P r o o f Andreoli/De Lorenzo 62
doi:10.1159/000088219 pmid:16145251 fatcat:sn6fc5o7hjehhehuzrpyyv3adm