Systemic Review on Transcranial Electrical Stimulation Parameters and EEG/fNIRS Features for Brain Diseases

Dalin Yang, Yong-Il Shin, Keum-Shik Hong
<span title="2021-03-26">2021</span> <i title="Frontiers Media SA"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="" style="color: black;">Frontiers in Neuroscience</a> </i> &nbsp;
Brain disorders are gradually becoming the leading cause of death worldwide. However, the lack of knowledge of brain disease's underlying mechanisms and ineffective neuropharmacological therapy have led to further exploration of optimal treatments and brain monitoring techniques. This study aims to review the current state of brain disorders, which utilize transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) and daily usable noninvasive neuroimaging techniques. Furthermore, the second goal of this study
more &raquo; ... to highlight available gaps and provide a comprehensive guideline for further investigation. A systematic search was conducted of the PubMed and Web of Science databases from January 2000 to October 2020 using relevant keywords. Electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy were selected as noninvasive neuroimaging modalities. Nine brain disorders were investigated in this study, including Alzheimer's disease, depression, autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, stroke, schizophrenia, and traumatic brain injury. Sixty-seven studies (1,385 participants) were included for quantitative analysis. Most of the articles (82.6%) employed transcranial direct current stimulation as an intervention method with modulation parameters of 1 mA intensity (47.2%) for 16-20 min (69.0%) duration of stimulation in a single session (36.8%). The frontal cortex (46.4%) and the cerebral cortex (47.8%) were used as a neuroimaging modality, with the power spectrum (45.7%) commonly extracted as a quantitative EEG feature. An appropriate stimulation protocol applying tES as a therapy could be an effective treatment for cognitive and neurological brain disorders. However, the optimal tES criteria have not been defined; they vary across persons and disease types. Therefore, future work needs to investigate a closed-loop tES with monitoring by neuroimaging techniques to achieve personalized therapy for brain disorders.
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="">doi:10.3389/fnins.2021.629323</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="">pmid:33841079</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="">pmcid:PMC8032955</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="">fatcat:5grwf7r6obfvxi6vkjhonowbs4</a> </span>
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