Comorbid Diabetes Mellitus was Associated with Poorer Prognosis in Patients with COVID-19: A Retrospective Cohort Study
The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, and was characterized as pandemic by the World Health Organization. Diabetes mellitus is an established risk factor for poor clinical outcomes, but the association of diabetes with the prognosis of COVID-19 have not been reported yet. Methods In this cohort study, we retrospectively reviewed 258 consecutive hospitalized COVID-19 patients with or without diabetes at the West Court of Union Hospital of Huazhong
... ospital of Huazhong University of Science and Technology in Wuhan, China, recruited from January 29 to February 12, 2020. The cases were confirmed by real-time PCR and the demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiological, and treatment data were collected and analyzed. Prognosis was defined as hospitalization, discharged survivor and death, which was followed up until March 12, 2020. Results Of the 258 hospitalized patients (63 with diabetes) with COVID-19, the median age was 64 years (range 23-91), and 138 (53.5%) were male. No significant differences in age and sex were identified between patients with and without diabetes. Common symptoms included fever (82.2%), dry cough (67.1%), polypnea (48.1%), and fatigue (38%). Patients with diabetes had significantly higher leucocyte and neutrophil counts, and higher levels of fasting blood glucose, serum creatinine, urea nitrogen and creatine kinase isoenzyme MB at admission compared with those without diabetes. COVID-19 patients with diabetes were more likely to develop severe or critical disease condition with more complications at presentation, and had higher incidence rates of antibiotic therapy, non-invasive and invasive mechanical ventilation, and death (11.1% vs. 4.1%). Cox proportional hazard model showed that diabetes (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]=3.64; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09, 12.21) and fasting blood glucose (aHR=1.19; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.31) were associated with the fatality of COVID-19, adjusting for potential confounders. Conclusions Diabetes mellitus is associated with greater disease severity and a higher risk of mortality in patients with COVID-19. Primary and secondary prevention strategies are needed for COVID-19 patients with diabetes.