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Applications that use directory services or relational databases operate in a client-server model, where a client requests information from a server, and the server returns a response to the client. These client-server applications typically have a specific message protocol that is unique to that application. Systems with multiple client-server applications require that there are separate client programs that individually communicate with their respective server programs. A need exists todoi:10.1109/tim.2008.920027 fatcat:pvc2emj3qfge5ayrkvlok7tdoq