Alcohol and malaria
Pharmacy & Pharmacology International Journal
Submit Manuscript | http://medcraveonline.com tropical countries. 1,2 During gametocytogenenesis malaria parasites hide in the bone marrow. Ethanol has an effect on bone marrow. Biopsies from 30 alcohol-dependent individuals were investigated. The findings took the form of heightened ineffective erythropoiesis in bone marrow associated with impaired iron utilization. Both may be detrimental to the survival of the gametocytes. 3 The effect of ethanol on the in vitro growth of the malaria
... the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum was investigated during six days of incubation. A significant growth inhibition for ethanol concentrations was observed on each day. Malarial parasites are strongly inhibited by ethanol concentrations. 4, 5 Fever is accompanied by glycogen destruction. This was already discovered more than 100 years ago. Glycogen disappears from the liver during tetanus, diphtheria and pneumonia. A natural way of our body to fight parasites and diseases. It makes thus complete nonsense to fight fever in the early stages of a malaria infection. 6,7 Alcohol also removes glycogen from the liver. 8 Chronic ethanol consumption also results in a dramatic decrease in liver glycogen concentrations, which could be related to either a depressed rate of synthesis or an increased rate of breakdown. 9 Macrophages, including Kupffer cells, appear to increase their production of cytokines in patients with alcoholic liver disease. Precursors of macrophages, i.e. monocytes with alcohol induced hepatitis produce greater amounts of TNF-α and reactive oxygen species. These data have been confirmed in animals. Malaria parasites are destroyed by oxidative species, like NO, H 2 O 2 or artemisinin peroxides. 10-12 Wine is efficient against other pathogens. An in vitro study was undertaken to determine the potential for survival of enteric pathogens in common drinking beverages. Three carbonated soft drinks, two alcoholic beverages, skim milk, and water were inoculated with Salmonella, Shigella, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and quantitative counts were performed over 2 days. The study showed poorest survival of all three organisms in wine, and greatest growth in milk and water. 2. Chrostek L, Jelski W, Szmitkowski M, et al. Gender-related differences in hepatic activity of alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase in humans.