Performance targets for fusion-fission (hybrid) reactors [report]

D.E. Deonigi, R.L. Engel
1977 unpublished
BATTELLE P a c i f i c Northwest L a b o r a t o r i e s Richland, W a s h i n g t~n 99352 The p o t e n t i a l r o l e s f o r v a r i o u s performance l e v e l s o f h y b r i d power p l a n t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s have been e s t i m a t e d f o r v a r i o u s s c e n a r i o s which d e s c r i b e t h e systems w i t h which t h e h y b r i d p l a n t s must compete. Due t o t h e u n c e r t a i n t y i n e s t i m a t i n g t h e c o s t s o f h y b r i d power p l a
more » ... r i d power p l a n t s , a p a r a m e t r i c approach was chosen t o i d e n t i f y acceptable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a s s o c i a t e d t r a d e o f f s . Because h y b r i d power p l a n t s produce s u b s t a n t i a l q u a n t i t i e s o f b o t h p l u t o n i u m and e l e ct r i c i t y , a s i m u l a t i o n model i s necessary which a p p r o p r i a t e l y values each o f these products. T h i s would p e r m i t design t r a d e o f f s and r e a l i s t i c i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h o t h e r g e n e r a t i n g p l a n t s , such as L i q u i d Metal F a s t Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) and L i g h t Water Reactors (LWRs), t o be estimated. A 1 i n e a r programming model n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t used f o r t h e r e c e n t LMFBR c o s t -b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s was u t i l i z e d f o r t h i s purpose. R e s u l t s f o r t h e r e f e r e n c e case s i t u at i o n a r e shown i n Table 1 f o r two d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f n a t i o n a l b e n e f i t s (1975 d o l l a r s ) i n terms o f t h e a l l o w a b l e c a p i t a l i z e d p l a n t c o s t r e l a t i v e t o LWR costs. That i s , a h y b r i d w i t h 0.3 conversion e f f i c i e n c y and a p l u t o n i u m pred i c t i o n o f 0.5 kg/year has an a l l o w a b l e c o s t 1.6 times t h a t o f an LWR. B e n e f i t s a r e d e f i n e d as t h e d i f f e r e n c e between e s t i m a t e d p r e s e n t w o r t h c o s t o f p r o v i d i n g e l e c t r i c i t y t o t h e n a t i o n w i t h and w i t h o u t t h e h y b r i d . T h i s f o r m u l a t i o n i s t h e same as t h a t used i n t h e LMFBR study, w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f a 15-year e x t e n s i o n o f t i m e t o y e a r 2040. The a l l o w a b l e c o s t when b e n e f i t s a r e z e r o r e p r e s e n t t h e performance necessary t o f i r s t e n t e r t h e market. To During the study, nine separate scenarios were examined. However, the m only scenario substantially different from the reference case was when the LMFBR was not utilized. The results of the target performance for t h i s case are shown in Table 2 . As can be seen, hybrid power plant costs without the breeder could r i s e 75 to 100% of that f o r the reference case and s t i l l produce $10 billion in benefits. This report does n o t analyze the potential of any specific hybrid design, b u t simply outlines targets f o r performance and performance tradeoffs to a s s i s t in optimal designing. With the allowable costs ranging from 1.3 t o 2.4 times LWR f o r the designs which convert most thermal energy to e l e c t r i c i t y , performance targets may well be achievable. However, in the case of those designs which are net energy consumers, the allowable costs for capital and operation appear to be too small for any practical design. An intermediate area where no net e l e c t r i c i t y i s consumed i s of special i n t e r e s t to u t i l i t y operators.
doi:10.2172/7312864 fatcat:sjzkxgo7kbg5rhwdncrs6edjg4