Virus-host coevolution: Endogenous RNA viral elements as pseudogenes

2020 Uirusu  
RNA viruses do not need to take the form of DNAs, and RNAs alone complete their replication cycles. On the other hand, since the 1970s, it has been known that DNA fragments derived from RNA viruses can be detected in RNA virus-infected cells. Furthermore, in this decade, it has become clear that the eukaryotic genomes contain genetic sequences derived from non-retroviral RNA viruses. The DNA sequences derived from these RNA viruses are thought to be generatedby using a transposable mechanism of
more » ... retrotransposon, such as LINE-1. Many endogenous RNA viral sequences are formed by the same mechanism as processed pseudogenes in eukaryotic cells, but the significance of the production of RNA viral "pseudogenes " in infected cells has not been elucidated. We have discovered endogenous bornavirus-like elements (EBLs), which derived from a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus, Bornaviruses, and have studied the evolution and function of EBLs in host animals. The analysis of EBLs provides us a clue to unravel the history of host-RNA virus coexistence. In this review, I overview about the function of endogenous RNA virus sequences, especially EBLs in mammalian genomes, and discuss the significance of endogenization of RNA viruses as viral pseudogenes in evolution.
doi:10.2222/jsv.70.49 pmid:33967113 fatcat:trnpdp5vxjemlnhddxdbo76zlu