Bulk Utilization of Red Mud in Geopolymer Based Products
Advances in Sciences and Engineering
Red Mud is the solid residue generated from Alumina refinery during the process of bauxite ore processing through Bayer's process. Typical generation of red mud is 1.5 tons of red mud per ton of alumina produced. The disposal and storage of red mud has been a concern for the alumina industry since its inception, more than a hundred years ago. With the increase in alumina production, the magnitude of the problem is getting multiplied. Its alkaline nature (Na2O ~ 3-7%) and fine size make red mud
... size make red mud unsuitable for many applications; a limited utilization is reported in cement industries as one of the raw mix components for cement. The present work deals with the utilization of red mud in geopolymer based paving blocks. Alumina, silica and alkali are the essential items required for geopolymer preparation. Having all these in red mud, the current study attempted to use the same in geopolymer based products. The focus has been on bulk utilization of red mud; target strength of 20 MPa after 28 days of curing (M20 grade) has been the goal as this strength is sufficient for many applications. The study focused on optimizing the red mud content, alkali concentration, fly ash content, etc. The samples are tested for its compressive strength and leachability. The study reveals that significant amount of red mud incorporation is possible with products conforming to USEPA 1311 norms.