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AbstractInterferon-alpha (IFN-α) and nucleot(s)ide analogs (NAs) are first-line drugs for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. Generally, NAs target the reverse transcription of HBV pregenomic RNA, but they cannot eliminate covalently-closed-circular DNA (cccDNA). Although effective treatment with NAs can dramatically decrease HBV proteins and DNA loads, and even promote serological conversion, cccDNA persists in the nucleus of hepatocytes due to the lack of effectivedoi:10.1186/s13099-021-00421-9 pmid:33845868 fatcat:d2fxslifjzc73ia2kukgprudym