Acute Effects of Parainfluenza Virus on Epithelial Electrolyte Transport
Journal of Biological Chemistry
Parainfluenza viruses are important causes of respiratory disease in both children and adults. In particular, they are the major cause of the serious childhood illness croup (laryngotracheobronchitis). The infections produced by parainfluenza viruses are associated with the accumulation of ions and fluid in the respiratory tract. It is not known, however, whether this accumulation is because of a direct effect of the viruses on ion and fluid transport by the respiratory epithelium. Here we show
... that a model parainfluenza virus (the Sendai virus), in concentrations observed during respiratory infections, activates Cl ؊ secretion and inhibits Na ؉ absorption across the tracheal epithelium. It does so by binding to a neuraminidase-insensitive glycolipid, possibly asialo-GM1, triggering the release of ATP, which then acts in an autocrine fashion on apical P2Y receptors to produce the observed changes in ion transport. These findings indicate that fluid accumulation in the respiratory tract associated with parainfluenza virus infection is attributable, at least in part, to direct effects of the virus on ion transport by the respiratory epithelium.